The Hootchie – Part 1 – An Adventure Through Time

A current issue Australian hootchie shelter. Image from www.raymears.com. Uncle Ray loves the Aussie hootchie.

A current issue Australian hootchie shelter. Image from http://www.raymears.com. Uncle Ray loves the Aussie hootchie.

 

UPDATE: I’ve posted an addendum to this article which details some hootchie-esque military shelters from the pre-WWII era.

“Hootchie” or “hutchie” is the slang term for the Australian Army’s Shelter, Individual – NSN 8465-66-013-5032.

The hootchie is a sheet of 70D nylon or PU-coated cotton with various press snaps and webbing tape loops attached around the outside which allow it to be used in a variety of configurations such as –

  • Tarp tent
  • Hammock tarp
  • Improvised hammock (heavyweight ones only)
  • Swag (bedroll cover)
  • Sleeping bag (best used with a wool blanket or nylon poncho liner)
  • Groundsheet
  • Fighting position cover
  • Waterproofing sheet for bundling up equipment during water crossings
  • Trailer or open-top vehicle cover (when stationary)
  • Solar still sheet (so says the Australian army’s survival pam)

And that’s just the ones I’ve tried or heard about. If you have alternate uses for the hootchie or its NATO/ANZUS cousins, post ’em in the comments.

The hootchie concept is widely used by military forces around the world as well as by outdoor enthusiasts such as bushcrafters and recreational hikers.  Here’s some military users –

United States – Poncho and Field Tarp

The new USMC field tarps are flooding the surplus gear markets. It's a pity I don't use camouflaged equipment or I'd grab one to test it out.

The new USMC field tarps are flooding the surplus gear markets. It’s a pity I don’t use camouflaged equipment or I’d grab one to test it out.

In the US, service personnel, outdoor enthusiasts and bushcraft practitioners have been using the venerable rain poncho in place of the hootchie for decades. These do an admirable job, but are just that little bit too small to be an effective tarp tent or hammock tarp. Recognising this, the US Marine Corps has recently introduced the “Field Tarp” it has a digital woodland camouflage print on one side, and is coated with “coyote” tan polyurethane. By all accounts it works well, but is a little heavy.

Poncho Shelter ideas from a US military manual. These work great if you're a midget (no offence to any of our smaller-statured readers). But if you're tall like me, a hootchie format works much better. For more uses for the military poncho (and therefore the hootchie) see http://www.hardscrabblefarm.com/vn/poncho.html

Poncho Shelter ideas from a US military manual. These work great if you’re a midget (no offence to any of our smaller-statured readers). But if you’re tall like me, a hootchie format works much better. For more uses for the military poncho (and therefore the hootchie) see http://www.hardscrabblefarm.com/vn/poncho.html

New Zealand – Kiwi Hootchie

Like the Aussies, our Kiwi brethren have long been advocates of the simple utility of the hootchie format for their shelter sheets. The Kiwi hootchie is camouflaged and is bigger than a standard Aussie one.

The United Kingdom – Basha

A British military-issue desert DMP basha. Smaller and more shoddily made than an Aussie hootchie, but appear to do the job.

A British military-issue desert DPM basha. A little smaller and more shoddily made than an Aussie hootchie, but they appear to do the job. Image from http://www.zombiehunters.org – user Kommander

The British call a hootchie a “Basha”. In British service, the idea was copied off Australian and Kiwi troops operating in Borneo during the Indonesian Confrontation in the early 1960s. Back in the early to mid 1960s British bashas were identical to Australian hootchies of the same era – solid green in colour. Later they were made in British jungle camouflage, which is a sort of yellow-tinged camouflage pattern. And for desert operations they were made and issued in British desert camouflage.

Cropped image of a current-issue British MTP basha showing the pattern.

Cropped image of a current-issue British MTP basha showing the pattern. As you can see, the pattern doesn’t work too well in hot/wet and cold/wet environments unless you set it up in the middle of the track. This will cause problems for the British, US, Australian and others who use Multicam-based clothing and equipment patterns if called upon to fight outside the arid zones.

They are currently being made and issued in the British Multi-Terrain Pattern (MTP) camouflage, a variant of American Multicam. Although never as widely used by the Brits as it is by the Aussies, the Basha/hootchie remains a well-loved piece of equipment for both tropical and arid climates, particularly since the British Ministry of Defence’s procurement people seem to have specified a much higher standard of materials and construction for the new MTP equipment.

Australia – Hootchie

The original and best, the Australian hootchie evolved from experience gained over decades of previous wars and other military operations.

SOurce - http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=157548

A British specification for the Commonwealth-issue WWI-era MKVII ground sheet/rain cape. Source – http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=157548

During the First and Second World Wars, Australian (and other British Commonwealth) troops were issued with a rubberised canvas ground sheet / rain cape. It was far from suitable as an individual shelter in the trenches, although a couple could be laced together to provide a shelter for two men, or as a cover for a fighting position. As a ground sheet and as a rain cape, it did sterling work despite it’s heavy weight.  It was state of the art for its time.

Along with the rain cape format, WWI and II era Australian and Commonwealth troops were issued with a ground sheet, which was essentially the rain cape without the triangular section and the collar accoutrements. Like the rain cape, an individual ground sheet was too small to be of much practical use unless used as a dry surface to bed down on or if laced together with another ground sheet as a cover for a sleeping or fighting position.

An Australian 1945-vintage groundsheet. Image from a now-defunct eBay listing.

An Australian 1945-vintage groundsheet. Image from a now-defunct eBay listing.

During WWII Australian forces fighting the Japanese in the Islands had an urgent requirement for a decent individual shelter. The rubberised canvas groundsheets and rain capes continued to be used (now issued separately), but these were less than effective in the tropics.

Groundsheet shelter from a WWII Australian jungle warfare manual. Great sun shade, but what if it rains?

Groundsheet shelter from a WWII Australian jungle warfare manual. Great sun shade, but what if it rains?

A better solution had to be found, and quickly.

Shelter Halves. From the AWM collection.

Shelter Halves. From the AWM collection.

To improve the troops’ individual shelter systems, large stocks of American shelter halves began to be issued. Similar in form to an Australian ground sheet, a shelter half was made from lighter water-repellent sateen cotton cloth and was fitted with press studs to connect to another “half” to make a two-man pup-tent. The shelter half was constructed in such a way that it resulted in a tent with a closed-in end. This is great for helping to keep rain and snow out of your bedding while you lay there freezing through a European winter, but  it reduced visibility and blocked ventilation in the jungle to unacceptable levels. As a consequence, US shelter halves were mainly used by Australians as fighting pit covers and as groundsheets. Ultimately the Australian troops were no better off than if they had retained their Australian-issue groundsheets.

Australian soldiers using American Jungle Hammocks in the Pacific during WWII - AWM collection

Australian soldiers using American Jungle Hammocks in the Pacific during WWII. This digger is an old hand, having kept his hammock slung low to reduce its visual signature and to better protect against errant gunfire or grenade fragments – AWM collection

A decent shelter was seen not as a luxury in these tropical malaria-infested areas, but as essential. Both the United States and Australia went to extraordinary lengths to try and prevent tropical diseases such as malaria and scrub typhus among the troops. As a result of this effort, the American Jungle Hammock was born.

An Australian-issued jungle hammock used by NX16053 Warrant Officer I Raymond Turrell in New Guinea during WWII - AWM collection

An Australian-issued US jungle hammock used by NX16053 Warrant Officer I Raymond Turrell in New Guinea during WWII – AWM collection

The jungle hammock was a revolutionary individual shelter system. It consisted of a canvas hammock protected by mosquito netting and topped by a waterproof canopy. It rolled into a bundle just a little bigger than a woolen army blanket but it was still portable and provided a waterproof, insectproof shelter for an individual soldier. In practice it was not a great idea to be using a jungle hammock in the front lines with the ever-present threat of an enemy artillery barrage or infiltration parties, but in larger camps back from the lines the jungle hammock was much appreciated. Keep a look out for a separate post on the WWII jungle hammock.

Towards the end of the war in the Pacific Australia began issuing its troops a lighter weight version of the groundsheet manufactured from polyurethane-coated cotton – the same material which formed the canopy of the US jungle hammock. Although issued too late to be truly revolutionary during WWII, the PU cotton material remained in the Australian Army’s institutional memory and became the basis for the first pattern “Shelter, Individual” – the hootchie.

Along with the jungle hammock, American ponchos began to be issued in quantity to Australian troops in the pacific. Made from a rubberised cotton, these were a turtle-neck format without a hood, but were lighter than the rain cape and larger than the groundsheet.

Australian soldiers' camp during the Malayan Emergency in 1956. Poncho shelters are in abundance. AWM collection.

Australian soldiers’ camp during the Malayan Emergency in 1956. Poncho shelters are in abundance. AWM collection.

During the Malayan Emergency of the 1950s, Australian troops were issued with hooded ponchos. Unlike the WWII US pattern ponchos which always had a hole in the dead centre of the poncho sheet, the Australian-issue hooded ponchos made an effective shelter – especially when two where clipped together. The problem of course is that the rubberised canvas ponchos were far too heavy for jungle use.

Malaya 1960. An Australian Long Range patrol on counter terror ops on the peninsula has been forced to rely upon gaudy commercial plastic shower curtains as shelters for their A-frame jungle beds. An unsatisfactory situation.

Malaya 1960. An Australian Long Range patrol on counter terror ops on the peninsula forced to rely upon ultra-lightweight but flimsy and gaudy floral commercial PVC plastic shower curtains as shelters for their A-frame jungle beds. An unsatisfactory situation. AWM collection.

The weight issue was critical for troops undertaking long range patrols in the jungle which could last for weeks. Some expedients such as the shower curtain idea used above were workable, but a lightweight and hardwearing shelter sheet was urgently required.In the early 1960s Australian units in Borneo hunting Indonesian infiltrators from Kalimantan were issued with the first pattern hootchies.

A lightweight hootchie. AWM collection

A lightweight hootchie. AWM collection

The hootchie was a sheet of PU coated cotton measuring approximately 2.7m x 1.9m (approx 8ft 10inches x 6ft 2inches) with press studs and loops sewn at intervals around the outside edge as well as various eyelets and grommets. A line of loops was sewn down the centre of the sheet to allow more options when pitching as a shelter. Although still a little heavy, the hootchie was a vast improvement over its predecessors, and was almost bombproof. Its one failing was its weight – still over a kilogram.

The hootchie became a standard piece of Australian equipment which was included in a new recruit’s initial clothing and gear issue. With Australia’s entry into the Vietnam war, a second pattern lightweight hootchie was issued. Made from nylon, but retaining the  hardware and loops, the lightweight hootchie weighed a mere 680 grams, still heavy, but suitable for tropical use.

A pair of hootchies used as a gun pit cover in Vietnam. AWM collection.

A pair of hootchies used as a gun pit cover in Vietnam. AWM collection.

In practice in Vietnam, the hootchie was rarely used as a slung tarp shelter. When wet it shone in moonlight and in the pre-dawn glow. Tying it to trees left “sign” and for exhausted troops on patrol it was simply a hassle to pitch the hootchie. It was often used in conjunction with a woolen “horse blanket” or a poncho liner as an open-sided sleeping bag or it was simply laid upon as a ground sheet with the soldier sleeping under a poncho. In more permanent positions such as patrol bases or fire support bases, the hootchie was widely used as a sun and rain shelter and as a cover for fighting pits.

After the Vietnam War the hootchie soldiered on and continues to form part of the equipment of the Australian soldier to this day. Modern hootchies are made of Australian camouflage (Auscam) nylon with khaki loops, but aside from this the size and pattern are identical to the green Vietnam hootchies.

British Outdoorsman and Campfire Cooking legend Ray Mears often uses a current Australian issue hootchie as part of his kit.

British Outdoorsman and Campfire Cooking legend Ray Mears often uses a current Australian issue hootchie as part of his kit.

That’s the evolution of the hootchie in a nutshell.

Next post in this series will look at types of shelters which can be pitched using a hootchie as well as an overview of a very decent commercial equivalent to the military issue hootchie – in environmentally-friendly green rather than “tactical” camouflage.

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Inexpensive “Training” Telescope

Having recently acquired a 1910s-vintage Scottish deer-stalker’s telescope in need of some restoration work, I started looking around for some modern alternatives that didn’t cost a million dollars on which I could learn some of the specific fieldcraft and field panorama sketching techniques which rely upon the use of an old-fashioned telescope.

After several hours trawling eBay, Amazon and Etsy for suitable candidates I became interested in one of the many Indian made “decorative” brass telescopes. If you’ve read my fake prismatic compass identification post you’ll get a vague idea of my opinion on these Indian-made fake instruments. I’m not generally a fan, but I decided to test one out thinking that even if the fake telescope was non-functional, being brass, it’d be a nice decorative object for the study. I paid less than you’d expect and four business days later, DHL delivered the package.

A vendor's image of a similar telescope.

A vendor’s image of a similar telescope.

The telescope appears to be a 1/2 to 2/3rds scale copy of a military Scout Regiment Telescope. Whereas the original measures over 30 inches, the ‘scope in question opens to a mere 18 inches with the shade extended. First impressions were not favourable. The (genuine) leather looked like someone had actually wiped their nether regions with it, but worst of all, it was tiny – smaller than I had expected.

It’s a three-draw telescope with an extending brass sun/glare shade, an approximately 40mm objective lens and a what I would estimate to be around 15x magnification. My 6×30, 8×30 and 7×50 binoculars don’t even come close to the power of this dinky decorative brass telescope. It will focus from about 5 metres to infinity. After eventually working out how to actually focus it, I marked the infinity focus pull on the third draw and can reliably spot aircraft against a blue sky. It gives a great image of the moon, which appears large in the eyepiece with craters visible. In short it’s fine for fieldcraft work, observation and field panorama sketching. It might even be OK for birdwatching – it can catch aircraft after all.

Two issues I have found with the telescope are that it’s difficult to use off-hand and unsupported. To get the most out of it I’ve been resting it against a convenient tree to steady it. A tripod or a bipod improvised from hiking poles would be be even more effective. The other issue is that the optics are flawed. This doesn’t mean that it doesn’t work, just that the edges of the image can be a little blurry. It works surprisingly well for such a little instrument, but don’t expect Negretti & Zambra levels of quality in either the optics or the craftsmanship. It’s cheap and cheerful.

Oh, and speaking of blurry – I discovered that with these types of telescopes, turning the viewfinder/eyepiece to focus it doesn’t work at all. You have to push in the 3rd draw until the image comes into focus. The focus then holds very well.

If it fails I’ll let you know, but from what I’ve seen so far, it’s a useable telescope in a compact size with decent power. Now I just need a tricorn hat, an eyepatch and a parrot.

Some photos of the item in question –

Closed up with leather lens covers and carry strap. Leather is very dry,but improves with the application of dubbin.

Closed up with leather lens covers and carry strap. Leather is very dry,but improves with the application of dubbin.

Covers off.

Covers off.

Extended to the full 18 inches.

Extended to the full 18 inches.

Fake manufacturer name and date. Isn't London a suburb of Mumbai?

Fake manufacturer name and date. Isn’t London a suburb of Mumbai?

View of the objective lens. Not all that wide, but still gives decent magnification.

View of the objective lens. Not all that wide, but still gives decent magnification.

A view of the dodgy stitching. One day, when I can't sand it any more, I'll replace the leather sheathing on this telescope.

A view of the dodgy stitching. One day, when I can’t stand it any more, I’ll replace the leather sheathing on this telescope.

For information on field telescopes and why they are useful to the outdoors enthusiast, keep a watchful eye for the next installment of the field sketching series.

Archival Food – 14-Day Unsupported Hiking Expedition, 1920s

Miles Dunphy and Bert Gallop pictured in 1912. Their equipment was still common among walkers in the 1920s, not to mention swagmen. Their basic load-carrying system is identical to that of the traditional Australian swagman - A bedding roll in which blankets, a sheet, coat, socks and underwear are rolled. Food is carried in a dilly bag hung off the swag strap to act as a counterbalance. In this photo we see a couple of rifles. The Dunphys and their bushwalking companions lived off the land wherever possible to supplement their rations. Wallaby, kangaroo and rabbit were the favoured game.

Miles Dunphy and Bert Gallop pictured in 1912. Their equipment was still common among walkers in the 1920s, not to mention swagmen. Their basic load-carrying system is identical to that of the traditional Australian swagman – A bedding roll in which blankets, a sheet, coat, socks and underwear are rolled. Food is carried in a dilly bag hung off the swag strap to act as a counterbalance. The dilly bag (also known as a tucker bag) carried the dry rations as well as the men’s eating gear – plate, enamel mug and knife/fork/spoon and their cooking equipment – a billy can with lid. In this photo we also see a couple of rifles – a .32/20 lever gun and a .22 bolt action. The Dunphys and their bushwalking companions lived off the land wherever possible to supplement their rations and save weight. Wallaby, kangaroo and rabbit were the favoured game.

I recently read an old journal article from 1924 which piqued my curiosity. It was a trip report of a group of naturalists who penetrated deep into the wilds of Tasmania for two weeks, carrying everything they needed for that two weeks – no resupply. Their camping gear list is a separate post in itself, but what interested me was the food they carried. There were no freeze dried meals or MRE entrees or single-serving noodle packs or cliff bars available to recreational walkers in the 1920s. It was mainly whole foods in as lightweight a format as they could manage. The food list below is a list of food carried by each individual for that 14 days. Check it out –

  • 2 x 2lb tin loaves – 1.8kg
  • 4 x lbs self-raising flour – 1.8kg
  • 4 x tins bully beef / camp pie / etc. – 48oz total – 1.4kg
  • 4 x lbs ship’s biscuits – 1.8kg
  • 2 x lbs sugar – 900g
  • 0.5 x lb salt – 225g
  • 3 x lbs dried fruit – 1.4kg
  • 2 x lbs creamoata – 900g
  • 1.5x lbs bacon – 680g
  • 2 x tins unsweetened condensed milk – 24oz total – 680g
  • 1.5 x lbs cheese – 680g
  • 2 x large cakes chocolate – 0.5lb each – 1lb total – 455g
  • 2 x lbs dripping – 900g
  • 1 x lb split peas – 455g
  • 1 x bottle bovril – 0.5lb – 0.255g
  • 0.5x lb tea – 0.255g

Total food weight29lb13.15kg – 2.07lb or 0.939kg per day

To give a modern comparison, lightweight hikers/bushwalkers on a multi-day trip will generally aim at around 1kg (2.2lb) of food carried per day. This means that the old timers’ food weights were actually comparable to modern standards, but this is unlikely to include the weights of the tin cans, glass and calico packaging. Still… not bad.

What's wrong with this picture. A group of walkers near Seal Cove in the Wilson's Promontory National Park in the late 1920s. Backpacks were now rapidly replacing the traditional swag and dilly bag.

What’s wrong with this picture? A group of walkers near Seal Cove in the Wilson’s Promontory National Park in the late 1920s. Backpacks were now rapidly replacing the traditional swag and dilly bag.

Some definitions:

1. Tin Loaf –

A tin loaf.

A tin loaf.

This was a loaf of sandwich bread, very similar in style and substance to a modern bagged loaf of bread, but it was unsliced of course and was only about 3/4 the length of a modern loaf. It was so-named because of the tin used to bake it. Back in 1924 most bread was baked French style –   without being constrained in a bread pan. In this instance these would have been wrapped in newspaper and carried in a calico bag.

2. Camp Pie –

It's a mystery why they call it a pie. It's a lump of rendered and extruded manufactured meat in a tin - as we Aussies like to say, "it's all lips and bums".

It’s a mystery why they call it a pie. It’s a lump of rendered and extruded manufactured meat in a tin – as we Aussies like to say, “it’s all lips and bums”.

Still available in Tasmanian supermarkets today, camp pie was a pork and beef-based luncheon meat in a round or rectangular tin depending on the brand. Similar to Spam. Bully beef of course is corned beef in a trapezoidal tin.

3. Ship’s biscuits –

Made from pretty much just flour and water with a pinch of salt, ship's biscuits were used in exactly the same way as hard tack. Image from http://savoringthepast.net/2013/06/12/ships-biscuit-recipes/

Made from pretty much just flour and water with a pinch of salt, ship’s biscuits were used in exactly the same way as hard tack. Image from http://savoringthepast.net/2013/06/12/ships-biscuit-recipes/

Circular hard tack. These would have been carried packed into a tea tin or in a calico bag

4. Creamoata –

Creamoata - now the kids won't be malnourished anymore...

Creamoata… so the kids won’t be malnourished anymore…

Appears to be some form of pre-mixed porridge (oats with milk powder and brown sugar) which was popular in Australia and New Zealand from the 1910s to the 1940s. Most likely carried in a calico bag

5. Bacon –

Slab of bacon

Slab of bacon

They are talking about thick slabs of bacon – American style.  I’ve had bacon rashers last 4 days in hot weather on a recent hiking trip, so if packed correctly the slab stuff should last even longer. These would have been wrapped in several layers of butchers or news paper

6. Cheese –

Did they even have plastic cheese in the 1920s?

Did they even have plastic cheese in the 1920s?

Hard cheese wrapped in cloth and stored near the middle of the backpack keeps well.

7. Cakes of Chocolate –

Prices used to go down once...

Prices used to go down once…

Back in the day bars of chocolate were also known as cakes of chocolate. Probably carried wrapped in cellophane in case they melted.

8. Dripping –

Bread and dripping - favourite "punishment" food of naughty kids everywhere in the 20s, 30s, 40s and 50s

Bread and dripping – favourite “punishment” food of naughty kids everywhere in the 20s, 30s, 40s and 50s

It’s a British Commonwealth thing. Similar to lard, dripping is cooked animal fat drained from a pan then filtered (or not) and kept for later as a cooking oil. Old timers love it on bread. In this case this stuff would have been carried in an old glass Vegemite or Marmite jar

9. Bovril –

She loves her Bovril - and just as well... now she might not contract tuberculosis.

She loves her Bovril – and just as well… now she might not contract tuberculosis.

A meat extract paste which was used to flavour stews, make “beef tea” (a thin beef soup) or spread onto bread in the same way as we use Vegemite today. It came in a screw-top glass jar (maybe it still does) and it had a shelf life of around 12 months in the pantry, making it useful as a condiment and ration supplement for long walks.

The whole food packs weighed around 29lb which is close enough to 13.155555555555kg.

A group of hikers eating their lunch of Bovril, creamoats and dripping (OK, I made that up) in the Baw Baw Ranges in Victoria circa 1925.

A group of campers eating their lunch of Bovril, creamoata and dripping (OK, I made that up) in the Baw Baw Ranges in Victoria circa 1925. Note “tucker” box and the billycans.